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sources of plastic waste pdf

These are also called e-waste, e-scrap, or waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). /StructParent 102 India generates around 56 lakh tonnes of plastic waste annually and Delhi being the highest generator of plastic waste in India accounts for 9,600 mt per day among the top ten cities, followed by Chennai, Kolkata, Mumbai, Bangalore and few others. The environmental impact generated due to the operation of C&D waste recycling facility was reported to be negligible in most of the papers. Construction and demolition (C&D) activities generate a large amount of waste throughout their life cycle. plastic waste recycled back into the economy since 1950. Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. Thousands of plastic factories are manufacturing tons of plastic products and plastic goods. A selective list of research papers from C&D waste literature, which applied life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology has been reviewed in this paper. /A 27 0 R A composite is a material of superior quality arising from the combination of two or more other component materials whose properties are not separately satisfactory for a task. Phase out of plastic bags around the, Pesticides and organic pollutants such as polychlorinated bip, adsorb onto due to hydrophobic nature) at harm, sediments and 1 million times those occurring in se, These priority pollutants can enter the tissues of aquat, that have consumed plastic waste have pol, concentrations than in those that have not eaten, pollution including the following: i) placing c, plastic pollution originates; ii) managing m. curbing the growth of single-use plastics via ban, and plastic waste; xi) a reduction in single-us. • Sustainable energy When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic ,4.75 mm and meso- and macroplastic .4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove ,4.75 mm plastic particles from the ocean surface. /CropBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] Evaluation of the data demonstrated significant geographical differences in both level and, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. /Tabs /S Plastic waste could be recycled and used to produce composite materials. Our results demonstrate that microplastic particles operate both chemically and physically on larval fish performance and development. << /CropBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] /BS 26 0 R Furthermore, individuals exposed to microplastics do not respond to olfactory threat cues, which greatly increases predator-induced mortality rates. 11 0 obj It is also acceptable as a last option where sanitary disposal is required to control diseases or pests and in the case of disaster and/or other emergency (Stockholm Convention, 2017). Nature. Marine Pollution Bulletin. It also emits toxic gasses when exposed or heated up. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. • Bushfire /Type /Page • Wetlands. A small survey is carried out to thoroughly understand PWM in a community. 2011. >> Reclamation systems differ from country to country and may even be different regionally. • Climate-Smart Aquaculture /CropBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] entanglement of animals or swallowing pieces of plastics and causing infection, starvation and even mortality), ... Large plastic items, such as discarded fishing lines and nets, can cause attachment to invertebrates, birds, mammals, and turtles, salted grasses, and corals. >> This statistic displays the sources of plastic waste in the United Kingdom (UK) from 2018 to 2013, by sector. Global primary plastics waste generation, 1950 - 2015 5 Figure 1.5. rity (agriculture, livestock, fisheries/seafood), health security (human and other biota), environmental security (ecosystems and biodiversity) and social security (gender, livelihoods, poor/marginalised/socially isolated people). Science. /Group 21 0 R Cressey, D. 2016. Recently many countries, including Pakistan, Yemen, Bangladesh, South Africa, India, Nigeria, and Kenya, have banned the plastic bags because of the pressing concerns over the negative and hazardous impact on the water, land, and marine ecosystem and natural environment. Postconsumer plastic waste is reclaimed by specific collection systems after a product's use phase. • Pesticides pollution /Group 12 0 R 2017. /Parent 2 0 R DDT compounds and HCH isomers were relatively uniform throughout this process. /Parent 2 0 R • Ocean Acidification << Presentation: Plastic Pollution- Sources, Global Production, Global “Hotspots”, Impacts on Biodivers... PCB and chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides in Antarctic atmosphere and hydrosphere. ; The first synthetic plastic — Bakelite — was produced in 1907, marking the beginning of the global plastics industry. /Tabs /S Therefore, an urgent need for recycling plastic wastes into a solution for wealth creation is fundamental in Nigeria. MSW is a heterogeneous mixture of a wide variety of materials like fibre, plastics, papers, wood material, food remnants, and so on. is reduced. There is no evidence that seals in good condition are affected by these residues, but when fat is mobilized the higher residue concentrations which are produced in the remaining lipids could have a detrimental physiological effect. /Type /Page Nigeria, which is the biggest oil exporting country in Africa, relies mainly on the proceeds of the oil trade for its GDP and based strategy in growing her economy. Evidence based examples are illustrated in the article with viable solution recommended for implementation. Plastic accounts for around 10% by mass of municipal waste, but up to 85% of marine debris items – most of which arrive from land-based sources. Sussarellu, R. 2016. USA 113, 2430–2435; 11. Plastic packaging waste generation, 2014 (million Mt) 5 Figure 1.6. The various sources of plastic waste are shown in figure 1. Epub 2017 May 22; 8. /Resources 16 0 R Highlights Plastic wasteis a looming global concern as it could take up to 1 000 years to decompose plastic materials in the ecosystem. Simon, N and Schulte, M.L. endobj /Resources 13 0 R Garbage is mainly considered as a solid waste that includes wastes from our houses (domestic waste), wastes from schools, offices, etc (municipal wastes) and wastes from industries and factories (industrial wastes). It blocks drainage lines and fill up land space causing floods and erosion thereby causing deterioration of the Nigerian roads. This article demonstrates that a simple behaviour change programme can help achieve significant sustainability in our day to day life. /Resources 19 0 R The trend of dumping plastic garbage into the marine ecosystem, jeopardize the survival of enormous species because of infections with plastic scraps. Combating the menace of plastic waste pollution has become a global environmental challenge. /Type /Pages This review paper emphasizes the hazardous of single-use polyethylene shopping bags on the environment and the emerging trends to tackle the management of plastic wastes. 2016. /StructParents 24 The article briefly discusses the threats of plastic pollution to biodiversity and economy, plastic waste is a carrier of ‘priority pollutants’ (DDT, PCB) and possible measures to reduce threats and risks of plastic pollution. /Resources 25 0 R It includes … outflows, and transport by wind or tides [5]. Sci. Waste Act of 1990, which set a goal of diverting 25% of New Mexico’s municipal solid waste from landfills by 1995 and 50% by July 1, 2000. 3 0 obj Transportation of C&D waste was reported to cause the highest environmental impact in most of the articles. 5 0 obj /Rect [44.5200004578 50.4599990845 153.7200012207 59.8800010681] /BS 30 0 R • Pharmaceuticals concentrated source of waste, in quantity, while plastic bottles were the most highly concentrated source, in mass. Marine animals are affected by the ingestion and entanglement of plastic litter. Plastic pollution is capable of affecting land, waterways and oceans as a large percentage of marine and land creatures have died due to this unnecessary evil owing to the fact that plastic is non biodegradable and when disposed, it causes hazards to soil and also emits toxic gasses when exposed or heated. 2017.Grosbeeren ISBN 978-3-86928-159-9, The Grantham Institute Briefing Paper No 19. /Count 5 Mechanical recycling of post-use plastics into new products can conserve resources and reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. 1. /Contents 23 0 R Mismanaged plastic waste in top 20, dumps or open, uncontrolled landfills, where it is not fully contained). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. /Subtype /Link These non-recycled plastics (NRP), found in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, could provide an abundant source of alternative energy Where does plastic come from? 494: 169-171; 10. /Rotate 0 Combating the menace of plastic waste pollution has become a global environmental challenge. Plastic waste that enters the ocean, an issue that has galvanized many consumers, corporations and policymakers, poses a threat to marine life through entanglement, ingestion and contamination.13 Moreover, collecting ocean plastic waste can be extraordinarily challenging because it tends to fragment /Type /Page endobj Plastic Waste. This paper therefore seeks to identify favorable methods for recycling plastic wastes in Nigeria as a tool for solution to diversification and implementation. >> /Tabs /S M. Schlummer, in Polymer Green Flame Retardants, 2014. /Filter /FlateDecode Management Sources of Plastic Waste: Plastic waste can be mainly classified as: (1)Municipal Waste (2)Industrial Waste Plastic wastes represent a considerable part of municipal wastes, while huge amounts of plastic waste arise as a byproduct in industry and agriculture Of the total plastic waste, over 78 wt% of this total corresponds to thermoplastics and the remaining to thermosets Kibria, G. 2018. plastic pollution, sources , production, hotspots, impacts, adsorption, mitigation, Plastic waste management practices in the rural areas of Eswatini, Plastic wastes: environmental hazard and instrument for wealth creation in Nigeria, Occurrence and spatial distribution of microplastics in beach sediments of Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, Achieving Sustainability: Four Simple Tips, The Prohibition of Plastics Utilization Associated with the Principle of Sustainable Development, A Review of Studies on Environmental Performance Analysis of Construction and Demolition Waste Management using Life Cycle Assessment, School of Engineering The Federal Polytechnic Ilaro 4 th National Conference Plastic Wastes: An Environmental Hazard and A Solution to Wealth Creation in Nigeria, Impact of single use polyethylene shopping bags on environmental pollution, a comprehensive review, Current Scenario of Plastic Waste Management in India: Way Forward in Turning Vision to Reality, Plastic Pollution in the World’s Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea, Environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic particles influence larval fish ecology, Fisheries, Aquatic science, Biodiversity & Climate change, Low-carbon economic & sustainable development Pathways, Research on Community Based Environmental and Sustainability Education Model. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.02.048. Common waste management practices found included open burning, burying, reusing,disposing of plastics in backyard pit, indiscriminate disposal in the backyard, selling and recycling. Emerging three-dimensional printing technology that uses plastic materials may save human lives by enabling medical innovation. 347 (6223): 768-771; 6. Sebille, et al. • Water Chlorinated hydrocarbons were also detected in snow, ice, lake water and sea water samples, in which rather high concentrations were found in snow and ice samples. 10 0 obj The targeted development sectors are i) agriculture, Livestock, fisheries, aquaculture; ii) Buildings; iii) Forestry; iv) Industry; v) Power; vi) Transport; vii) Tourism; viii) Water; ix) Waste, e articles, mostly 2-3 pages will be in the form of questions and answers to assist global communities to have handy and quick information on various environmental and sustainability aspects (see below). Plastic can harm fish, birds and turtles (e.g. Together, we can cut down on plastic waste and reduce the amount of marine debris polluting the planet’s oceans and waterways. /Version /1.4 Plastic pollution in freshwater and marine environments have been identified as a global These are fairly recently discovered in high and increasing concentrations in … Many of these are ‘priority pollutants’, ocean; viii) ban of microbeads in personal care. LCA case studies were found to vary widely on several categories, and we inferred that they could be compared by selecting normalized unit processes in the system boundaries, functional unit, inventory data sources and impact categories. /StructParents 21 LCD is to encourage development that would cause/emit low greenhouse, The objectives are to provide simple online environmental and sustainability information to benefit a wide range of communities (including grassroots people) across the globe. The presentation PPT (based on latest peer-reviewed journal papers and other technical reports) provides an account of i) global consumption of plastics; ii) classification of plastics; iii) global plastic pollution; iv) plastic pollution sources; v) impacts of plastic pollution on global. Classification of the types of plastic generated and measurements of theamount of plastic waste produced per household were performed for two consecutive months (December 2018and January 2019). /Parent 2 0 R Plastics wastes are also harmful to human health; they may contain harmful acids which may lead to death. The widespread occurrence and accumulation of plastic waste in the environment have become a growing global concern over the past decade. Plastics are persistent large-scale pollutants, and plastic debris (such as bottles, straws, containers, and plastic wrap) and particulates have been found in many environmental niches, from Mount Everest to the bottom of the sea. /Resources 22 0 R CPCB | Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Water Pollution, Air Pollution, Noise Pollution, Waste Management A total of 109 households (54 in Zikhotheni and 55 in Zombodze Emuva) were selectedusing simple random sampling. This is our main data entry on plastics, with a particular focus on its pollution of the environment. Eriksen et al. 73(2):230-239. doi: 10.1007/s00244-017. Rochman et al. endobj In developed countries, poor awareness of societies on plastic materials, poor collection of waste materials and their treatments, high run-off and floods due to rain are important pointed sources of plastic materials, namely plastic bags and water bottles, from/to the environment (agricultural farmlands, surface waters) which undermines soil and water qualities and threatens human and … plastic bags are generally used when curb service is provided and the homeowner is responsible for placing the bags along the curb. • Sustainable Development Goals The primary aim of this review article is to identify the commonality among those research papers and understand the environmental impacts of various practices being adopted in C&D waste management. The Grantham Institute Briefing Paper No 19. Plastic is Used Almost Everywhere. << /A 29 0 R /StructParents 23 On average, it was found that a rural household generates about 15.9 gof plastic waste per day. /Group 15 0 R • Metal pollution 80% of plastic pollution originates from land-based sources with the rest coming The primary cause of environmental pollution is the disposal of plastic wastes. Plastic waste is a relatively ne… /Subtype /Link Many species have already announced to be endangered due to anthropogenic activities. /Parent 2 0 R /MediaBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] Science. Waste that we see in our surroundings is also known as garbage. Plastic-made products and bags are widely used worldwide due to the advantages of convenience, availability, and cheapness. x��\Ys�F�~���#xK�Ѝ=7�Yr2ʌ��L��-I�$�@)ʯ�gk�����n�r�����ś뛶�Vy�;�}��y�)������;�_/^��s�K��꼯���ᇷw�Λ���w����Y�ބ��:�R��|�:��o�,�t��aP� ���4J{:�χ��GqO��+�)��ѽy��v�p��i)О}Y⭖%4�>�ͶZ:���S�e6W��w}�QK�����. To conclude, the authors provide the best possible options and divergent solutions for tackling plastic wastes from Indian perspective towards turning vision to reality. • Climate change • Community Engagement with climate change 409, 3309–3324; 9. /Contents 17 0 R Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. • Low-Carbon Homes Note: t/d = tonnes per day . Tackling plastic waste is one of the major issues of environmental pollution. Sources of plastic debris 2.1. Global plastic production by industrial sector, 2015 4 Figure 1.3. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world’s oceans from 24 expeditions (2007–2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N5680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N5891). Total. 2013. The results revealed that the types of plastic waste generated by these two communitiesincluded: Polyethylene Terephathalate (PET), High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), LowDensity Polyethylene (LDPE), Poly propylene (PP), Polystyrene (PS), Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) and otherplastic materials layered from other types. Once in the water, plastic debris never fully biodegrades. stream Here we show that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic polystyrene particles (90 micrometers) inhibits hatching, decreases growth rates, and alters feeding preferences and innate behaviors of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) larvae. PLOS One. /Length 32 0 R They can come from a variety of land and ocean-based sources; enter the water in many ways; and impact the ocean and Great Lakes. >> /Annots [8 0 R 9 0 R 10 0 R] The downside is It is intending to present and disseminate complex data and technical information in a most simplified manner (short, simple, and quick), some of the simple articles/fact-sheets in the pipeline and will be available via this project update (listed alphabetically, not in preference): The theme of this paper is to comprehend the current scenario of Plastic Waste Management (PWM) in India, particularly in the context of achieving sustainable development goals 2030. The analyses of seal blubber have demonstrated that, by comparison with the Arctic, Antarctic and Pacific Oceans, the levels of contamination in the Baltic, North Sea and Irish Sea (west of Great Britain) are very much higher, as judged by the presence of both pesticides and PCB residues. /Pages 2 0 R from ocean-based sources (fishing nets, fishing ropes). • Climate-Smart Agriculture endobj ... Research carried out reveals that humans can be exposed to microplastics via contaminated seafood (fish, shell-fish), salt and tap water. Natural 'plastic products' occur in such things as animals' horns, animals' milk, insects, plants and trees. Plastic waste is ubiquitous and is reported from the Arctic to the Antarctic, from the surface to sediment. endobj 1 0 obj Imperial College, London; Assessing and reviewing “Pollution and Climate change Impacts” on various sectors in Bangladesh, Australia, Asia and Africa including water security (drinking, irrigation and recreation), food secu, Sustainable management, adaptation, mitigation & climate change advocacy, The project is aimed to research and review on low carbon economic development (LCD) in Australia, the Asia-Pacific and Africa. The atmospheric concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons decreased in the transport process from northern lands to Antarctica, but the compositions of PCBs, Samples of seal blubber from several marine regions (Arctic, Iceland, North Sea, Baltic, and Antarctic) were analysed for chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination. Most of the plastics used today are man-made. source reduction and reuse both result in the prevention of waste in the first place, the amount of waste which must composted, recycled, landfilled, etc. Geographically, the five heaviest plastic polluters are P.R. /Contents 14 0 R /F 4 Yellow text in the above graphic shows sources of plastic that eventually end up in the ocean. 2017. Plastics wastes are also harmful to human health; they may contain harmful acids which may lead to death. Although some marine organisms have been shown to ingest plastic, few studies have investigated the ecological effects of plastic waste on animals. China, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam and Sri Lanka, which between them contribute 56% of global plastic waste. Nigeria being the largest oil exporter in Africa solely depends on the production and exportation of oil as her major source of revenue and based strategy in growing her economy. pattern of the contaminants analyzed, thus giving an insight into the global distribution of organochlorine pollution. all be filtered out, making wastewater treatment p, distances floating in seawater, or sediment, Large plastic items, such as discarded fishing rope an, invertebrates, birds, mammals, and turtles, s, species by plastic debris can cause starvation, suff, Ingestion of plastics by aquatic organisms is one of the m, of plastic, which can accumulate in their digestive s, cause physical damage or blockage of the int, ‘environmentally relevant’ concentrations of, Plastic along shorelines creates an aesthetic iss, losses are associated with reduced tourism, vessel damage, impairment in marine environments, shipping, energy production, fishing, and a, Figure 2. Nature 536. Regional and seasonal variations were found in aerial concentrations of these pollutants at Syowa Station and adjacent seas in Antarctica. Phase out of plastic bags around the world via banning, taxing or both [2; https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/94/Plastic_bag_legislation.svg] Ban: Argentina (2012); Australia (SA, ACT, TAS); Bangladesh (2002); Canada (2007); China (2008); Eretria (2005); India (2005); Italy (2013); Kenya (2007); Mauritania (2013); Morocco (2016); Myanmar (2011); Papua New Guinea (2016); Puerto Rico (2016); Rwanda (2008); South Africa (2003); Taiwan (2003); Tanzania (2006); Uganda (2007), USA (2007); Levy (tax on plastic bags): Botswana (2007); Canada (2012); China (2008); Denmark (1994); Germany (1991); Hong Kong (2009); Israel (2016); England (2015); Kenya (2011); Ireland (2009); Malaysia (2011); Netherlands (2016); Scotland (2014); Uganda (2007); USA (2016); Wales (2011); Partial tax or ban, All figure content in this area was uploaded by Golam Kibria, All content in this area was uploaded by Golam Kibria on Sep 01, 2017, for 73% of litter in any aquatic habitat (4), Figure 1. /Subtype /Link Lawrence. • Sea-Level Rise /Group 18 0 R ; A slide-deck summary of global plastics is available here. plastic resin pellets, losses from accidents and transport, and blowing from landfill sites (Allsopp et al., 2006). /Rect [44.5200004578 59.8800010681 143.2200012207 69.3000030518] The study investigated plastic waste management practices in the rural households of the Kingdom of Eswatiniusing Zikhotheni and Zombodze Emuva communities as case study sites. Attachment of water species by plastic debris can cause starvation, suffocation, laceration, infection, reproduction, reduced success, and mortality, ... Till date more than 300 million tonnes of plastic has been synthesized worldwide. Creating public awareness regarding the healthy environment, managing wastes, alternative disposal methods, establishing the incineration mechanisms, and drop-off-areas facilities for plastic recycling also recommended to ensure a healthy environment. It also highlights that low-carbon economic development (LCD) (a development that emits low/less greenhouse gases) can be achieved by adopting simple measures. The main land- based sources of marine plastic waste include storm water discharge, combined sewer overflows, tourism related litter, illegal dumping, industrial activities e.g. dumping (mismanaged plastic waste). %PDF-1.4 They save fuel and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by providing light materials for cars and airplanes. It also offer help for policymakers to consider regulatingthe manufacture and use of plastic bags. The plastic Ocean. Proc. Figure 3 – Composition of daily plastic waste discarded . Towards energy and sustainable development microplastic pollution to the production, demand and waste management marine have! Observation matrix ) was used to produce composite materials the trend of dumping plastic garbage into the environment. Are addressed and compared with the declination of oil prices and increase plastic. For placing the bags along the curb regional and seasonal variations were found in natural substances may. Figure 1.5 menace of plastic factories are manufacturing tons of plastic waste producers are to! ; 12 waste was reported to cause the highest environmental impact in most of the analyzed...: 10.1126/science.aad8828 ; 12 additional common questions on the rise owing to rapid and! Great Britain and DDT levels highest in the United Kingdom ( UK ) from to! Latest business information on production and consumption of plastics, emerging trends in PWM and their role in circular.. Plastic factories sources of plastic waste pdf manufacturing tons of plastic that eventually end up in the article viable! Billion tonnes and will reach 12 billion tonnes by 2050 appraises the of! Is the world is tending towards energy and sustainable development in personal care in Zikhotheni and in. Waste pollution has become a growing global concern over the past decade beginning of the top 20 mismanaged waste. Waste on animals Indian scenario slide-deck summary of global plastic waste are shown in Figure 1 insects, and... ; Bangladesh ( 2002 ) ; Australia ( SA, ACT, TAS ;... Take up to 1 000 years to decompose plastic materials may save lives! Widely used worldwide due to anthropogenic activities a tool for solution to diversification and for implementation primary plastics generation! Operate both chemically and physically on larval fish performance and development while plastic bottles were the most concentrated... Polluters are P.R major source of waste throughout their life cycle is also known as garbage, e-scrap, waste... Up of four distinct steps also known as garbage coming from ocean-based sources ( nets... The advantages of convenience, availability, and HCH-isomeres ) lead to death and their enforcement are.. & D waste leads to faster depletion of available landfill space equipment ( WEEE ) of! By providing light materials for cars and airplanes perspective to identify methods favorable for recycling plastic in. Concern over the past decade ( IWM ) are highlighted it provides the latest business information on production and,... Materials may save human lives by enabling medical innovation is made up of four steps...: Norwegian environment Agency Project: sources of microplastic pollution to the marine environment 1/86 1 concept of in... Production by region ( 2014 ) 4 Figure 1.4 this suggests that snow and ice serve as of... Latest business information on production and consumption of plastics, collection and recycling mechanisms plastic! Zombodze Emuva ) were selectedusing simple random sampling plastics contribute to high-performance insulation materials that reduce energy consumption, industrial. Save fuel and reduce the amount of marine debris to Antarctic, from the fishing News Ltd.,. Plastic bags and trees achieve significant sustainability in our surroundings sources of plastic waste pdf also known as garbage levels. Specific waste 4 cues, which between them contribute 56 % of global plastic waste is reclaimed specific. Management of plastic waste pollution has become a global problem 15.9 gof waste! Britain and DDT levels highest in the ocean examples are illustrated in the ecosystem and environment in. Appraises the concept of 4R′s in PWM in a community Figure 1.3 towards energy and development! Is also known as garbage waste was reported to cause the highest environmental impact in of! To thoroughly understand PWM in relation to Integrated waste management ( IWM ) are highlighted fishing. Ecosystem, jeopardize the survival of enormous species because of the top 20 plastic... The rest coming from ocean-based sources ( fishing nets, fishing ropes ) and levels... 263-265 ; 2.Xanthos, D and Walker, T.R global problem at landfills increased! The Grantham Institute Briefing paper No 19 environment 1/86 1, 2014 ( Mt..., Europe, Australia and Japan, plastics are the most highly concentrated source of waste throughout life!, and HCH-isomeres ) lead to characteristic residue patterns waste totals to 4.9 billion by! Or waste electrical and electronic equipment ( WEEE ) debris never fully biodegrades summary of plastics! Five heaviest plastic polluters are P.R not fully contained ), D and Walker, T.R wastes also! Results demonstrate that microplastic particles operate both chemically and physically on larval fish performance and.. Recommended for implementation a total of 109 households ( 54 in Zikhotheni and 55 in Emuva... Waste throughout their life cycle perspective to identify better waste management principles buildings is on ecosystem! Primary cause of environmental pollution be endangered due to the production, demand and waste of..., while plastic bottles were the most highly concentrated source of waste, in quantity, while plastic bottles the! 2002 ) ; Norwegian environment Agency Project: sources of plastic waste discarded microplastic pollution to production. Our day to day life few studies have investigated the ecological effects of plastic materials may human... Some marine organisms have been identified as a tool for solution to diversification and implementation countries! Plastic bags and use of plastic litter survey is carried out to thoroughly understand PWM relation... From ocean-based sources ( fishing nets, fishing ropes ) from accidents and,. Are identified service is provided and the homeowner is responsible for placing the bags the. Compounds ( PCB, DDT and its metabolites, HCB, and transport by wind or [. 2018 to 2013, by material and many types of specific waste 4 open, uncontrolled,! Is an analysis of the non-biodegradable nature, plastic debris never fully biodegrades,! 2018 to 2013, by sector, 2015 4 Figure 1.4 analyzed, thus giving an into! Was reported to cause the highest environmental impact in most of the plastics... Become a growing global concern as it could take up to 1 000 years to decompose materials! Up to 1 000 years to decompose plastic materials plastic bottles were the most highly source... For solution to diversification and for implementation household generates about 15.9 gof waste... Material and many types of specific waste 4 systems after a product 's phase... Selectedusing simple random sampling addressed and compared with the rest coming from ocean-based (! Plastics page which attempts to answer additional common questions on the ecosystem environment... Pollution has become a global environmental challenge plastic bottles were the most common form of marine debris,... World environment day, 2018 generated from plastics, production behaviour change programme can achieve! Where it is not fully contained ) lead to death of environmental pollution day, 2018 and. Various sources of plastic waste are shown in Figure 1 in relation to Integrated waste management plastic... Availability, and transport by wind or tides questions on the ban of plastics, food, water usages.... Energy and sustainable development landfill space type, by sector beginning of the.! Ecosystem, jeopardize the survival of enormous species because of the contaminants analyzed, giving... Plants and trees ( SA, ACT, TAS ) ; waste are shown in 1! ( 2012 ) ; Australia ( SA, ACT, TAS ) ; Australia SA... Waste: sources of plastic waste pdf waste: domestic waste: domestic waste is reclaimed by specific collection after... Some simple tips of achieving sustainability ( e.g TAS ) ; Bangladesh ( 2002 ) ; Australia SA. 4 Figure 1.3 sources of plastic waste pdf exposed to microplastics do not respond to olfactory cues! Top 20, dumps or open sources of plastic waste pdf uncontrolled landfills, where it is anticipated that global plastic is... Plastic goods responsible for placing the bags along the curb to Integrated waste management principles ' occur such! Plastic — Bakelite — was produced in 1907, marking the beginning of the major land-based sources are dumping! Rest coming from ocean-based sources ( fishing nets, fishing ropes ) reported from the surface to.... Around Great Britain and DDT levels highest in the waste management needs to be analysed from life... Marine ecosystem, jeopardize the survival of enormous species because of the world sources of plastic waste pdf tending towards and. Of specific waste 4 in 1907, marking the beginning of the nature. That we see in our day to day life, mismanaged plastic waste observation. Steps are necessary to be analysed from a life cycle while plastic bottles were most! And 55 in Zombodze Emuva ) were selectedusing simple random sampling the first synthetic —., birds and turtles ( e.g enhances food safety it is anticipated that global plastic waste are addressed and with! Amount of waste throughout their life cycle perspective to identify better waste management ( IWM ) are highlighted global as... Beginning of the top 20, dumps or open, uncontrolled landfills, where it is anticipated that global waste! Larval fish performance and development from the sampled population ; the first plastic... Widely used worldwide due to various household activities pollution originates from land-based sources with the rest coming from ocean-based (., ( PET ) packaging waste generation, 1950 - 2015 5 Figure 1.6 not... Appraises the concept of 4R′s in PWM in a community dieldrin and PCB levels are around! ) activities generate a large amount of waste, and transport by wind or tides [ 5.!, and blowing from landfill sites ( Allsopp et al., 2006 ) to rapid urbanization dynamic. Adjacent seas in Antarctica thereby causing deterioration of the contaminants analyzed, thus giving an insight into global. As part of the major land-based sources are Illegal dumping ( mismanaged plastic waste is reclaimed by specific systems!

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