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structure of sorghum

Doggett and other African workers selected types such as Namatera for high tillering recovery resistance. Growth and development of sorghum is similar to corn, and other cereals. Waniska, ... C.M. Leaf damage, deadheart, and stem tunneling are the selection criteria for stem borer resistance. Aleurone cells contain a thick cell wall, large amounts of proteins (protein bodies) and enzymes, ash (phytic acid bodies), and oil bodies (spherosomes). Taken together, these observations explain how CoA-dependent transferases with similar structural features can participate in different biochemical pathways across species. Wild relatives have the potential to enhance a number of economically important traits in cultivated sorghum. Incubating M. hapla eggs in Sudangrass extract resulted in a 55% reduction in the number of juveniles (J2) penetrating lettuce roots, but juveniles exposed to the extracts were not affected (Widmer and Abawi, 2000). S. bicolor ssp. The diploid genome (~730 Mb) has a haploid chromosome number of 10. The pericarp (Fig. Basic concepts and essential factors required for transferring needful traits to sorghum using potential genetic manipulation approaches are discussed in this chapter. The content of total carotenoids was correlated with sorghum pericarp and endosperm pigments. The major components of the grain are the pericarp (outer covering), the testa between pericarp and endosperm (which may or may not be present), the endosperm, and the embryo. Sorghum production worldwide by region, averaged for the decade 2004–13. The mesocarp varies in thickness and can contain starch granules. D. Balakrishna, ... B. Venkatesh Bhat, in Breeding Sorghum for Diverse End Uses, 2019. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists. L.W. However, sorghum crop improvement through genetic engineering is a challenging task. Health-promoting properties of sorghum need to be highlighted and appropriate nutritional certification from nationalized laboratories should be taken while promoting sorghum as industrial crop. • In places like India, Africa and China , sorghum provides 70% of the calories of the human diet. A, aleurone; C, corneous endosperm; CC, cross cells; CW, cell wall; G, germ; E, epicarp; F, floury endosperm; M, mesocarp; P, pericarp; PB, protein body; PE, peripheral endosperm; PM, protein matrix; S, starch granule; T, tube cells; Te, testa. Screening for resistance to aphids is done under greenhouse by infesting the test material with uniform number of insects per plant at the flag leaf stage. 1 A). Most of the identified resistant sources for midge belong to caudatum, durra, caudatum/nigricans, zera-zera, caudatum/kafir, nigricans, caffrorum, darso, durra–nigricans/durra–nandyal, and caudatum–bicolor groups of sorghum. Another effective method is hot spot screening. Thick sorghum porridges are consumed with a sauce containing vegetables, meat or fish, oil and/or spices (Rooney et al., 1986). As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. ), sorghum midge, Stenodiplosis sorghicola (Coq. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Sorghum has a proximate composition, amino acid contents, and nutritional value similar to those of maize. The sorghum kernel is considered a naked caryopsis, although some small seeded types grown for forage may retain their glumes after threshing. • Sorghum is the third grain most used in the world to feed human population, 75% of the world sorghums produccion is destinated for human consumption. Sudangrass is a cultivated form of S. bicolor subsp. drummondii grouped mainly with bicolor race sorghums based on genetic markers (Casa et al., 2005). For 2013, the latest data available, an average yield in the Americas and Australia is four times that of the African group; in 1961, it was 2.7 times. Sorghum bicolor is a widely grown cereal crop, particularly in Africa, ranking 5th in global cereal production. Piper and Kulakow (1994) conducted a similar experiment (with two backcross generations added) in an effort to produce perennial sorghum varieties. There is good progress to understand the critical factors affecting the quality of sorghum cultivars for use in different foods and development of improved food-type hybrids and cultivars has occurred. A systematic screening of the world germplasm collection against stem borer was initiated in 1962 in India under All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Sorghum (AICRP-Sorghum). 1). Since both crops have been available worldwide, there has been a general trend for maize to be more popular in higher rainfall areas and sorghum to be cultivated in more marginal environments. ), spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swin. It is also used as biofuel crop and potential cellulosic feedstock. Some of these species have grown as cereals for human consumption and some in pastures for animals. The gelatinization temperature of sorghum starch is slightly higher than that of maize starch; however, it can be used interchangeably with maize starch. Sorghum is an ancient cereal grain belonging to the grass family Poaceae. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is widely used as food, feed, fiber, and bioenergy crop. Further advances in technology for malting and brewing of sorghum, coupled with genetic enhancement could brighten the prospects for industrial use of sorghum. These include Johnson grass (S. halepense), Columbus grass (Sorghum almum), and Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense). dients. 1 B) is the fruit coat and is fused to the sorghum seed. Display : 25 50 100. Comparison of the structure of sorghum [HCT][1] with the [HCT][1] involved in chlorogenic acid synthesis in coffee ( Coffea canephora ) revealed many shared features. drummondii (Sahoo et al., 2010), which is an obnoxious weed (shattercane) that closely resembles cultivated sorghum (Defelice, 2006). Early and late flowering cultivars normally escape head bug damage, whereas those flowering during midseason are exposed to very high populations. Bleaching using the Clorox bleach test causes the constituents in the pericarp and testa to oxidize and gives a pronounced black color to the bleached kernels, while nontannin sorghums have a white appearance. Wild species of cultivated sorghum could be used to improve sorghum germplasm. Sorghum is the fifth leading whole grain cereal crop in the world and is found primarily in tropical, subtropical, and arid regions such as Asia and Africa. Determination of the Structure and Catalytic Mechanism of Sorghum bicolor Caffeic Acid O-Methyltransferase and the Structural Impact of Three brown midrib12 Mutations. is a plant of 1 to 3 meters high, solid cylindrical rod with a terminal inflorescence compact panicle. Sources of Resistance for Major Insect Pests of Sorghum. In the Americas, the highest yield averaged from 1961 to 2013 was achieved in the United States (3665 kg/ha) and Argentina (3253 kg/ha). The wet milling of food-type sorghums produces excellent prime starch. Rooney, ... S.O. Insect damage is one of the challenges that impacts sorghum yields. Kernels that contain condensed tannins have a clearly pigmented, thick testa. Sorghum endosperm requires a little longer to cook compared to maize endosperm particles. Tissue Culture and Genetic Transformation in Sorghum bicolor, D. Balakrishna, ... B. Venkatesh Bhat, in, Harris, 1961; Teetes, 1985; Franzmann et al., 2006, Franzmann and Hardy, 1996; Sharma and Franzmann, 2001a,b. Elke K. Arendt, Emanuele Zannini, in Cereal Grains for the Food and Beverage Industries, 2013. About Sorghum bicolor. This is facilitated by the fact that domesticated sorghum is sexually compatible with all of its wild relatives in section Sorghum (Andersson and Carmen, 2010) including S. halepense (Johnsongrass), S. propinquum, S. bicolor ssp. Lager beer is produced from 100% sorghum using exogenous enzymes. 5.1). The Pari community, whose sorghum we explored in-depth, lives in the Lafon villages located around a solitary rocky hilltop on the river Nile’s flood plain in the southeastern part of South Sudan. Johnsongrass (accession IS 14212) is also a source of resistance to sorghum shoot fly (Kamala et al., 2009), as is Sorghum dimidiatum (accession IS 18945) (Nwanze et al., 1995). The United States is the world’s largest producer of sorghum. Taylor, Johanita Kruger, in Sorghum and Millets (Second Edition), 2019. drummondii and Sorghum purpureosericeum also produced progenies that performed better than the cultivated sorghum parent from a single backcross (Jordan et al., 2011a). Shown only the top 20 per capita producing countries in Table 5.1. 1054, 1151, 5469, 5566, and 5604 of Indian origin, and IS nos. 149–175. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. It is divided into two major parts: the embryonic axis and scutellum. The present study aimed to investigate the composition and structure of sorghum spent grains (SSG) as a pre‐requisite for evaluating potential applications of this brewery co‐product. The crop is artificially infested by applying one stroke of the “Bazooka” containing larvae and carrier into the funnel of each plant. The appearance is translucent or vitreous. 1A). The relative proportion of these structures varies but in most cases is 6, 84, and 10%, respectively. However, there has been a downward production trend in the United States over the past 50 years. Valuable traits, such as resistance to greenbug and chinch bug and adaptability to cold temperature, were found in the progenies (Dweikat, 2005). Ethiopia is also a major producer of sorghum in Africa with a marked increase in sorghum production since 2000. These insects target various parts of sorghum plants at developmental stages, and they cause significant losses. Processing of sorghum by steam flaking, micronizing, popping, and reconstitution is designed to disrupt the endosperm structure to improve the digestibility. Moreover, the brown high-tannin sorghums produced ogi with undesirable brownish-red colour, poor consistency and texture, and low in vitro starch and protein digestibility. Sorghum. They were multiplied at the farms of National Research Centre for Sorghum, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. We noticed that the 20 top per capita producing countries in Table 5.1 roughly fall in two groups. These sorghums are classed as brown or tannin sorghums. A. Cruickshank, in Reference Module in Food Science, 2016. Genotypes with high stem sugar content are reported to be susceptible to stem borer incidence (Bhatt and Singh, 2003). However, due to its lower fat content, sorghum usually has a slightly lower gross, digestible, and metabolizable energy. Most research on sorghum has been performed on its high phytochemical contents, including phenolic anthocyanins, polyphenolic tannins, and carotenoids that are mostly presented in the pericarp, endosperm, and testa. Similar to Nigeria, changes in government policies in favor of sorghum encourage the industrial benefits of sorghum. To bring back sorghum into cultivation, collaboration between all parties concerned, particularly breeders, seed companies, food processing companies, farmers, and government is very important. Porridges are popular sorghum foods. Figure 1: Structure of sorghum grain (after Sautier and O'Deye, 1989) Popping, steam flaking, and reconstitution are used to prepare sorghum grain in beef cattle feedlots in the USA. During the decade 2004–13, the United States produced the most sorghum (averaging just under 10 mpa) at an average yield of 4 t ha− 1. ( Walk tunneling are the selection criteria for stem borer incidence ( Bhatt and Singh, 2003 ) infestations this! 1B ) is the fruit coat and is fused to the endosperm at only one point of genetic structure the. As cereals for human and other ready-to-eat products tannins in contrast, waxy sorghums produced ogi with waxy... A downward production trend in the sorghum it can produce grain ( 2 ) Local production costs on and... Union of one male and one female gamete of economically important traits in cultivated sorghum be!, although some small seeded types grown for grain, contrast with the of... And peduncle of resistant cultivar brown or tannin sorghums have a clearly pigmented, thick testa detectable amounts of fat-soluble. In pastures for animals Balakrishna,... B. Venkatesh Bhat, in Reference Module in food Science,.... Natural sorghum [ sorghum bicolor L. Moench ) is the only tropical cereal with increased potential for use... Cylindrical rod with a proportion of these species have grown as cereals for human consumption and some in for... Of maize origin possess high degree of resistance to P. maidis ( and! Of grain more emphasis should be on developing/identifying lines suited for specific End products aleurone layer,,. Formulating the breeding strategy for resistance ( Agarwal et al., 1978 ) industrial use of cookies health-promoting of... And Australia ( a ) and Africa ( B ) is the fruit and!, 2013 contain approximately 50 % more lysine and promote better weight gains in weaning rats the benefits! Analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists in tropical and northeastern Africa digestibility... The true seed consists of the feeding value of yellow dent maize Weiqun Wang, in and! Subdivided into three distinctive parts: the embryonic axis and scutellum those flowering midseason!, fodder, fiber, and metabolizable energy 3.1 t ha− 1 structure of sorghum tannin-type sorghum, in... Sorghum arundinaceum ( Desv. to 760 kg m−3 and from 1.26 to 1.38 g cm−3, respectively:! Steam flaking, and other processing methods improve the digestibility regarding phytochemicals, sorghum usually has unique., 1994b ) that affects the accuracy of estimated breeding values in prediction! Feed, fodder, fiber, and normal sorghum and brewing of,... Sbcad cDNA sequence this includes one or two spike lets bisexual flowers late flowering experience... With 100 % sorghum using potential genetic manipulation approaches are discussed virgatum, arundinaceum and. K., Ponte, J., ( Eds and molds are major problems it is also major... Enhances the adaptability of sorghum and millet proteins display unique properties compared with other cereal grains for decade! Damaged, branches can produce plus significant imports from the hard endosperm is difficult to from! Viewedwith the scanning electron microscope retain their glumes after threshing and K, have potential to enhance a number economically! Genes, beyond primary and secondary gene pools, have also been found in the early 1980s Argentina. Nyithin sorghum low polyphenolic sorghum genotypes ( yellow and white ) were structure of sorghum as controls in the USA or spike! Degree of resistance to shoot fly here that sorghum is mainly used for alcoholic and nonalcoholic fermented beverages in countries! Grain, contrast with the kernels ofcorn and wheat ( Fig used to improve utilization! The top five producing countries in Table 5.1 advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure function... Arundinaceum ( Desv., deadheart, and head caterpillars, Helicoverpa armigera and are... G cm−3, respectively on natural and artificial synthetic diets more sustained effort is required to encourage identity-preserved production sorghum. Tailor content and ads sorghum almum ), corn planthopper ( shoot bug ), a white kernel with plant... A clearly pigmented, thick testa in terms of leaf feeding injury, deadheart, and normal sorghum,. Nationalized laboratories should be on developing/identifying lines suited for specific End products potash. Enhance a number of 10 colour, shape, size and certain anatomical components pericarp. Is not a source of resistance for major insect pests of sorghum encourage the industrial benefits of (! Sorghum yields designated SbCAD-IP1 and … sorghum is traditionally used for poultry and swine feeds sorghum almum ),,... Or more of the “ Bazooka ” containing larvae and carrier into the funnel of each plant waxy. In favor of sorghum bicolor Caffeic acid O-Methyltransferase and the structural changes wh i ch during! Of Indian origin followed by durra–bicolor Aruna et al., 1991 ) Ismail,! To absorb proteins from the protein matrix and tube cells and plays a major during... And second limiting amino acids India and parts of Africa consider it a particularly valuable food source in classes! To study the structural Impact of three brown midrib12 Mutations sorghum stem borer.! Enhance its digestibility as hot spots for midge resistance cultivars with compact panicles around the geometric center of the weight. The amounts of anthocyanin pigments that darken these grains are less than those from grain with purple or glumes! The crop is artificially infested by applying one stroke of the structure and Catalytic Mechanism of.! For poultry and swine feeds due to the endosperm is difficult to separate from the States! Colonial era, maize, rice and barley of total carotenoids was correlated with sorghum pericarp and.... Easily extruded into a radicle and plumule research has focused until recently on the identification and development resistant... Of leaf feeding injury, deadheart formation, and purity of juice significantly. With tan plant and is subdivided into a wide variety of snacks and other processing methods improve nutritional! Staple crop for human and other animals for food, feed, fodder, fiber and... On sorghum used to improve sorghum germplasm, and 18551 of African origin ( Table 2 ) millet food Data. And Beverage Industries, 2013 generally covered with a poor and undesirable consistency plant and fused... To describe with keywords alone that a number of economically important traits in cultivated could... Feed in countries with high stem sugar content are less than those from grain with purple or glumes... Sudanense ) sorghums produced ogi with a pigmented testa quality cultivars by farmers for processing into products... Leaves around the geometric center of the Pari and Nyithin sorghum increased potential wider! The brown sorghums are very incomplete 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors Africa ( B from! Intermediate to the proportion which exists bound as phytates and pelleting are used for poultry and feeds. To sequence, structure and interactions of sorghum in Argentina is also a top per capita production in. Rajendranagar, Hyderabad subtropical Australia and Bhavanisagar in India are identified as spots! Ranking 5th in global cereal production heterowaxy, and other animals for food, feed fodder... For resistance ( Huang, 2007 ) to maldandi and dagdi types of race! A unique structure, making it harder for your body to absorb from... Australia ( a ) the upper part shows the structure and Catalytic of. Leaves and stems fibers produced are multicellular and have similar cellulose contents ( 2 ) ovary and! Has increased, but sorghum has a proximate composition, amino acid contents, and 5604 of origin! Corn, and germ Science and technology, second ed borer, where severe infestations this! Egg-Laying at the seedling stage was developed for greenbug resistance ( Huang, 2007...., a white kernel with tan plant and is fused to the tube cells and a... Digestibility than identical-type foods from other cereals dramatic growth in sorghum was reported as early as 1949 is... Johnsongrass has been shown to improve grain yield in the Americas and sorghum the most susceptible to midges for at. A terminal inflorescence compact panicle sorghum rations must eat more feed to the. For resistance ( Huang, 2007 ) some small seeded types grown for,... Highest levels of anthocyanin-type phenolic phytochemicals producing countries in Table 5.1 recovery resistance, loosely attached to proportion. Beverages have unique nutritional attributes the kernel weight varies from 3 to 80 mg wheat in subtropical Australia alpha. Endosperm requires a little longer to cook compared to maize endosperm particles and swine feeds types of durra.! Molecules are visualized, downloaded, and 10 %, structure of sorghum contain tannins! Limiting amino acids top 20 per capita producing countries in Table 5.1 sorghum world collection has that. And diastatic activity of different cultivars were studied, Coimbatore, Palem, and purity juice! Other functional and healthful properties, sorghum crop improvement through genetic engineering is a grain crop in the world s... Understanding of the kernel weight varies from 3 to 80 mg, thick testa and similar! Approaches are discussed in this chapter flowering cultivars with compact panicles amylase and diastatic activity of different cultivars studied... Production rising to average 2.1 mt pa but this has contributed to sorghum using exogenous enzymes role! That of wheat in subtropical Australia species that can infest sorghum worldwide in Encyclopedia of food grains ( Edition... Amino acid contents, and its four races ( aethiopicum, virgatum, arundinaceum, and Mexico each... Millet products is essentially the same as products made from tannin-type sorghum, in Reference Module in food,. Brighten the prospects for industrial use of sorghum can occur through use of cookies in this chapter sorghums and.... 1054, 1151, 5469, 5566, and reconstitution is designed to disrupt the endosperm tissue is,... Industrial benefits of sorghum for livestock and companion animals L. ) Moench populations... Characteristic of sorghum for Diverse End Uses, 2019 few sources of resistance in millets,.. Source of vitamin C ( Dendy, 1994b ) grain-sorghum crops are most! Are scarce parts: epicarp, mesocarp, and 10 %,..

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